Poison Ivy, Poison Sumac and Poison Oak-10 Facts you MUST KNOW

Poison Sumac-August 25

Non-poisonous sumac

I’ve had my share of run ins with poison ivy and poison sumac. Years ago I got a free load of mulch from the dump. Yep, you know where I’m going… In less than 24 hours- 80 percent of my body was affected with blisters and rash. It only takes one experience to teach you a powerful lesson. I’ll never get mulch from the dump again! Here are some other things we need to know about these poisonous plants.

1. Learn how to identify poison ivy, poison sumac and poison oak.

Poison Sumac

Poisonous  Sumac-found mostly in swampy locations

The poisonous sumac is a woody shrub or small tree growing up to 20 feet tall.
The stems of the leaflets are always red. Yellow-green flowers are present during June and July. The small white or grey berries are visible in September.
Non-poisonous sumac has red berries. Poison Sumac differs from other sumacs in having shorter leaves, fewer leaflets, and smooth leaf edges.

Poison sumac-remember if a cat goes through it and you pick it up- you're going to get the poisonous oil on you.

If your barn cat goes through poison ivy or poison oak and you pick it up- you’re going to get the poisonous oil on you.

If your dog runs through it, comes in the house and plops down- what he touches is infected with oil.

If your dog runs through poison ivy, comes in the house and plops down- anything he touches is infected with oil! You must wash your animal with soap and water to get the oils off.

2. How long does poison ivy, sumac, and oak stay active?   1-5  years. Anywhere the plant has touched, if it is not washed- is potentially active with urushiol oil.

3. Do NOT burn poison ivy, poison sumac, and poison oak in a brush pile. The poison plant oil called urushiol can cause a very severe allergic reaction. The heavy particles of the smoke contain urushiol, which will fall down in soot form and can be inhaled. The lungs can swell, cause coughing,  extreme irritation, and swelling in the throat. It can also cause blisters, swell face, and eyes shut.

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This is a serious hazard. I’ve seen pictures of babies with their eyes swollen shut from being exposed to the poisonous oils released into the air through bonfire.

4. Wash poison oil off ASAP. I am highly allergic to it and once a month I mow through areas infested with it.  I  mow for 30 mins wearing jeans, boots, long sleeve shirt and glasses.  I go inside take clothes off and put directly into washing machine. Next, I head to shower and wash myself well with soap and water. This has prevented almost all reactions for me personally.  Sometimes if I have a large area to mow I’ll come in and change clothes and wash every 1/2 hour.   I don’t let my clothes hit the floor.

Poison ivy would take over the property if we didn't control it

Poison ivy would take over the property if we didn’t control it

5.  Discard poisonous branches and leaves.  Wear long sleeves, pants, boots, gloves and goggles. Chop branches and put in garbage bags and put into trash.

Poison ivy running rampant up old oak tree

Poison ivy running rampant up old oak tree

6. How to keep poison ivy, poison sumac and poison ivy from spreading.  Keep mowed by tractor, cows, goats and sheep. Pour heavy amounts of salt on area after it is mowed down. It will kill everything around it, so be careful where you pour.

Goats LOVE poison ivy! It's a delicacy to them. They don't eat much grass but they love brush.

Goats LOVE poison ivy!  They don’t eat much grass but they love brush!

7. Poison ivy, poison sumac and poison oak are not poison dormant in the winter. It is not safe to clear poison areas in the winter.  It is just as active in the winter as summer.

8. If your cow or goat eat poison ivy and you drink the milk it does not  give you  immunity to the toxins. Scientist say that is folklore.  90 percent of people are allergic on some level, the others aren’t.

Goat milk from goats eating poison ivy does not give you an immunity to the toxin

Goat milk from goats eating poison ivy does not give you an immunity to the toxin

9. Poison ivy blisters are not contagious. You must come in contact with the urushiol oil to get it. If you haven’t washed clothes, boots, etc that were touched by it you’ll get it. Not by touching blisters but touching the oil.

10. Treatment if infected with poison ivy, poison sumac, and poison sumac: 1. Bathes with baking soda and epsom salt are effective. 2. Put a teaspoon of baking soda on wet gauze, cover affected area. 3. Banana peel and cucumber soothe the itch. 4.  Pour whey onto gauze or folded absorbent paper towel and cover affected area. Secure in place.  The whey treatment helps us more than other treatment.hwkb17_017_18_19.jpg

Don’t Leave an Open Door for Your Enemy

photo

I thought I was all alone but there were noises coming from the cellar.  I was too afraid to open the door. . . so I didn’t. I continued to type and then from the corner of my eye, I saw something move.  I gulped and bravely looked to see him staring at me from the cellar door.

Fear grabbed me and then I ran outside and screamed for Dale. The six-foot snake still hung from the top of the door staring at me.  The tip of its tail clung firmly to the top for security. Bare handedly Dale grabbed the snake with both hands.  The snake was holding on for dear life!  He firmly pulled him off the door.  Its head stood straight up and body seemed bigger than life as Dale juggled his weight toward the front door.  All along I watched from my standing position on the table top.  Dale looked at me as if to wonder if I was just going to stand there or help him. He said, “I NEED YOU TO OPEN THE DOOR!”  Then, he flung the snake out into the grass.

I gathered myself and sat back down to work.  My daughter came into the kitchen a few minutes later and calmly pointed at the same door and said, “Mom, there’s another one.” I gulped and turned to see the second huge snake staring right at me.

This one was determined not to get caught.  He slithered behind the large freezer.  Us girls were undone with adrenaline and disgust.  Dale told us to get a grip and help him.  The third snake appeared…

We all took a deep breath after the third snake was caught and sighed in relief, believing that it was all over.  It was getting late, Ellie (16 yrs old)and I were washing dishes together and she made a proclamation, “I will never, ever sleep in this home again. I’m moving in with Becca.  They don’t have snakes!” As I handed her the rinsed plate to be dried off, I assured her that there were no more snakes and that she would not move in with her friend Becca.

Calmly she said,”Mom, there’s one coming from the cellar door right now.” I  said, “Ellie, don’t be silly.” I turned just to make sure she was kidding but she was right!  Number five and six came last and we’ve never seen another snake in the house since.  Ellie never moved in with Becca.

We’ve lived in our house for twenty years and never had a snake before that or after.  Dale had left the crawl space door under the house open in the fall and forgot to close it. The snakes saw it as a welcome sign for winter dwelling and took up residence. Winter was over and they were looking for their way out…

That night as I laid in bed, the verse from Ephesians 4 came to mind, “Don’t give Satan a foothold.” What’s a foothold? An open door to be invited in.  Satan looks for open doors of opportunity- footholds into our life.  We open doors to him when we have un-forgiveness, anger, fear or we constantly dwell on conflict we have with others. . . (just to name a few ways he slithers his way in).

We don’t even realize he’s gotten a foothold sometimes until  fear or anxiety stare us in the eye and say “here I am, now what are you gonna do about it?”  We can choose to ignore it, be too afraid to face it- or engage in the battle that will define our life.  I don’t know about you but I don’t want to live with snakes in my home.

It’s MY home and God has not given me the spirit of fear; but of power, and love, and of sound mind.  Negligence in this battle is costly.  Imagine what my house would be like if I didn’t get rid of the snakes or left the door open all year long.  I wouldn’t want to live here!

If Jesus is Lord of our life, than we have the weapon we need.  The Word of God will defend us!  We need to read it, believe it, and live it.  Jesus promises to help us!  Ask the Lord to reveal any open doors in your life that have allowed the enemy to have a foothold. Clean your house and shut the door to snakes!

“Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil walks about like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour.” I Peter 5:8

Take up the sword of the Lord which is the Word of God and rebuke the enemy with TRUTH!

“Resist the devil and he will flee from you.” James 4:7

10 Nostalgic Fall Decorating Ideas-DIY

Let dry until no moisture is left and flowers are dried completely- few days

In the olden days people decorated their homes with homemade treasures, often with resources grown on their own farms. I’m excited to share with you 10 nostalgic fall ideas we made this year from resources grown(mostly) our property.  I hope you make a few for your home! If you have any  old-fashioned ideas for fall decorating–I would love to hear them!

An industrious woman always plans for the future. Pin this post so you can plan for the things you’ll make next fall.  In the spring you’ll want to plant  flowers that you’ll dry at the end of summer for your fall arrangement. You’ll want to plant gourds and pumpkins if you have space. Back in the day even those who had little money purchased a few basic items in town at a store, like cloves and a lemon. I spent less than $10 on everything I made in this post.  I’m not sure how much money a grapevine wreath is in the store. You may find one at a yard sale or thrift store for a fraction of the cost of a new one.  A good resource to find free treasures to decorate wreaths would be in the forest. Go on a nature hike and return with bags of possibilities.

#1 Dried Zinnia Wreath

My summer Zinnia's dried--now I can enjoy them all year!

My summer Zinnia’s dried and made into a wreath! I enjoy them all year! I’m giving away zinnia seeds to 3 people! Just tell me you want seeds in comment section! I’ll pick 3 winners next week–save them for next spring!

Picked fresh Zinnia's multiple colors-you can see them growing from the window.

I picked fresh Zinnia’s of multiple colors-you can see them growing from the window.

Pour silica crystals into a large bowl- set flowers on top

Pour silica crystals into a large bowl- set flowers on top.

Cover flowers with silica crystals. I've had my crystals for 18 years. They still work.

Cover flowers with  crystals. I’ve had my crystals for 18 years. They still work.

After the flowers come out of microwave- shake off crystals and hang with clothes pins on a drying rack

Put covered flowers  in microwave for a couple of minutes-shake off crystals and hang with clothes pins on a drying rack.

Let dry until no moisture is left and flowers are dried completely- few days

Let dry completely for a couple of days- these are ready!

Use a glue gun to glue the dried flowers into place

Use a glue gun to glue the dried flowers onto grapevine wreath

 

#2 Pinecone Tree- We have pine trees on our property, so pine cones are plentiful. If you don’t have any–ask someone who does to give you some. Most people who have pine cones have hundreds or thousands to share.

Dale made this beautiful pine cone tree for me! We're putting lights on it tonight!

Dale made this beautiful pine cone tree for me! We’re putting lights on it tonight!

Some pine cones are open, some closed. I put the closed ones in the oven to open them. *pumpkin grown on Glasgow Farm

Some pine cones are open, some closed. I put the closed ones in the oven to open them. *pumpkin grown on Glasgow Farm

Pinecones_in_bowls

 

Closed pinecones- put in 200 degree oven until they fully open- couple of hours or more

Closed pinecones- put in 200 degree oven until they fully open- couple of hours or more

Half opened

Half opened

Pinecones_in_oven_open

Fully open- you can turn heat up for faster opening or reduce to slow–they are dry and break more easily when to heated too high

 

Two large tomato cages from the garden served as the base of the pine cone tree

Two large tomato cages from the garden served as the base of the pine cone tree

Dale screwed screws into the bottom of each pine cone and then took a long piece of wire-wrapped each pine cone tightly around each screw and wrapped around base of tomato cage

Dale screwed screws into the bottom of each pine cone and then took a long piece of wire-wrapped each pine cone tightly around each screw and wrapped around base of tomato cage

Pinecone_Christmas_tree_DG_101413_Hartwood_VA_SG_inside_1186x890

Pinecone_Christmas_tree_SG_102113_Hartwood_VA

 

 

#3 Cornucopia I bought our basket- but baskets are easy to make if you’d like to be 100% authentic!

I've had this cornucopia for 20+ years- every year I fill it will fall produce

I’ve had this cornucopia for 20+ years- every year I fill it with fall produce

#4 Pine cone garland

Pine cone garland- string pine cones on twine and hang from nails at your kitchen window

Pine cone garland- string pine cones on twine and hang from nails at your kitchen window

#5 Stained Glass Dried Leaf & Flower Art

Supplies needed: Iron, flowers or fall leaves and wax paper

Supplies needed: Iron, flowers or fall leaves and wax paper

 

Stained glass dried leaf & blossom art- Pick fall colored leaves and flowers, place between two pieces of wax paper and press with hot iron until sealed all the way around and inbetween

Stained glass dried leaf & blossom art- Pick fall colored leaves and flowers, place between two pieces of wax paper and press with hot iron until sealed all the way around and in-between Can you guess what these are?

 

10 Nostalgic Fall Decorating Ideas-DIY 049

Pansy in the center

Fall Leaf Stained Glass

#6 Pomander- Clove Studded Lemon

Prick lemon or orange with nail and then insert cloves into the holes. Cover the entire lemon or orange if you want it to last years. Then sprinkle oris root over top of it and let sit in paper bag for a couple of weeks. The orris root preserves it. The cloved lemon to the left is 18 years old.

Prick lemon or orange with nail and then insert cloves into the holes. Cover the entire lemon or orange if you want it to last years. Then sprinkle orris root, cinnamon and ground cloves  over top of it and let sit in paper bag for a couple of weeks. Every few days I shook the bag around making sure the powder covered it well.  The orris root preserves it. The cloved lemon to the left is 18 years old.

The blue bowl holding the cloves was made by my sweet nephew Thomas Killian, he makes  handmade pottery and has an online store.

Pomanders are wonderful smelling.  You can decorate them in patterns, wrap a ribbon around them and place in a bowl or cover completely and preserve them for years to come.

Supplies needed: small or medium size unblemished fruit. (Oranges, Apples or Lemons)

cloves

Spice mixture: 1 tablespoon each: cinnamon,  ground cloves and orris root

Knitting needle, toothpick or nail

#7 Corn Husk Garland

All the corn stalks tied together and ready to hang over front door

All the corn stalks tied together and ready to hang over front door

I bought 15 regular corn cobs @5 for $2.  Pull the husks up over the corn--like in the photo

I bought 15 regular corn cobs @5 for $2. Pull the husks up over the corn–like in the photo

10 Nostalgic Fall Decorating Ideas_DIY_004_1186_890

Tied twine around each corn husk

I tried to hurry the process by putting in the oven on 200 for 10 hours. It wasn't perfect, it overcooked the husks. You're supposed to let them dry in well circulated space for several weeks

I tried to hurry the process by putting in the oven on 200 for 10 hours. It wasn’t perfect, it overcooked the husks. You’re supposed to let them dry in well circulated space for several weeks

After out of the oven I tied all the corn cobs together

After out of the oven I tied all the corn cobs together with twine

 

 

All the corn stalks tied together and ready to hang over front door

All the corn stalks tied together and ready to hang over front door

 

#8 Natural Wreath

Fall wreath- Fall weeds and produce on a grapevine wreath–whatever you

find interesting in your part of the world that dry’s well- stick in the wreath

and hot glue into place. This only last one season. Next year it will be an

entirely different look depending on what I find interesting in our field.

 wreath1186X890

Weeds growing in our field- picked for wreath

Weeds growing in our field- picked for wreath

Wreath_corn

#9 Pomegranate pumpkin face

Pomegranite is hard fleshed and easy to use like a pumpkin- Crave with small knife, let dry and enjoy

Pomegranite is hard fleshed and easy to use like a pumpkin- Crave with small knife, let dry and enjoy-

#10 Retro Art

 

I'm going to send a copy of this retro Thanksgiving Day card to all my subscribers next week! Mine is framed and sitting in my kitchen window. You can find vintage frames at all thrift stores!

I’m going to send a copy of my retro Thanksgiving Day card to all my subscribers next week! Mine is framed and sitting in my kitchen window. You can find vintage frames at all thrift stores!

I’m giving away some of my zinnia seeds! Tell me your favorite color flower below to enter your name for the drawing. I’m picking three winners for the seeds. I’ll announce winners next week.

If you are a subscriber to my blog I’ll send you the retro Thanksgiving Day art next week!

Winner of $40 Target gift card and devotion book  from last week is Mary T. you posted on2013/10/14 at 12:09 PM! email me your address!

How to Make and Can Pear Butter

Sharon’s Pear Butter( I double the recipe)

We have an abundance of pears on our property. We just found another tree drooping with pears a couple of weeks ago in our field. Some people are allergic to apples so pears are a great way to enjoy the same recipes with a fruit similar. I would recommend using apple cider in this recipe if your family members can have apples. I posted how to make your own pear cider in here.

10 cups chopped pears (approximately 5lbs)

2 cups pear cider (you can use apple)

3 cups sugar (you can make it without sugar)

1 tsp ground gloves

1/2 tsp allspice

3 tsp ground cinnamon

1. Wash, peel,core and quarter pears. You don’t have to peel the pears if they’re blemish free.

2.Cook pears in cider and sugar until done, 20 min’s on high.

3. Pour pears in small quantity into blender and puree.

4. After all pears are pureed put spices in and stir

5. Pour into a pan and cook in oven on 350 degrees for at least 7 hours. It becomes thick and rich the longer it cooks.

Don’t use iron pans, it turns the pear butter a dark color and takes on the taste of iron. I learned this the hard way. Glass, stainless steel or ceramic are good choices. Test for desired thickness by spooning a drop of pear butter on cold plate. If no liquid oozes around edges, it is ready.

6. Ladle into sterile jars, leaving 1/4 inch head space.

7. Process in boiling water canner for 10 minutes.

Yeilds 5 pints

 

With Every Great Endeavor there’s Manure to Shovel

DSC_0232Farm life lives up to its nostalgic romantic ideology most days.  Other times it’s stinking hard! Like the days you have to shovel manure. . . The scenic farm with sheep grazing on luscious green fields, cows milked in scrupulously clean barns, and chickens nesting on fresh hay bundles- are the product of unseen hard work.

Shoveling manure is one of my least favorite farm chores.  Yesterday, Dale and I shoveled the goat house.  If you’ve never done it, there’s no way to describe it.

A pitch fork is needed to get under the old matted hay and then you start lifting layers off. Each layer gets heavier with saturated dense manure.  At first you don’t want to touch the stuff, but by the end you just want to get the job done.  So with gloves on, you start supporting the heavier mounds onto the pitch fork and hauling it out onto the back of the tractor.

It’s horribly smelly. You see bugs you wish you’d never seen.  You’re filthier than you ever thought possible and your back feels the weight of the day by the last shovel full-but it’s a requirement on a good farm. The goat house is vitally important to us.  Our goats give us an abundant harvest of delicious, organic milk every day.

With every great endeavor there’s manure to shovel.

Proverbs 14:4 says, “Where there are no oxen, the manger is empty, but from the strength of an ox come abundant harvests.”

This proverb has a lesson for us all. Whether you’re a mom, business owner, missionary, student, laborer or farmer—the principle is the same, without taking care of the hard stuff there’s no reward.

The farm that lives up to its nostalgic romantic ideology takes care of the hard stuff first and then all enjoy the by-product of its labor.  The same is true for you.  No matter what you’re going through, you must take care of the unmentionables.  These are the things no one else see’s, the harder things.  Keep plowing forward with grace and strength- and in due season you (and many others) will see the fruit of all your labor.

“Strength and honor are her clothing; She shall rejoice in time to come. “Proverbs 31:25

The goat houses all clean, today!

Clean goat houses

Farm life is nostalgic and romantic indeed but never idle

Farm life is nostalgic and romantic indeed but never idle

Ann Peterson is the winner of the drawing last week! She chose morning glories for her prize! Ann- send me your address and I’ll send you the seeds from my morning glory vine!

Morning glory seeds from our vines

Morning glory seeds from our vines- Winner- Ann Peterson!

Fall Harvest- Yeast Bread from Grape Pulp- Fried Green Tomatoes

This morning’s harvest- a quart of goat milk, eggs, bunch of green tomatoes, okra, pears, figs, spaghetti and butternut squash, herbs and autumn olives.  Do you see the pumpkins growing outside my window?

Fall is the busiest time on the Glasgow Farm. The harvest is plentiful but the laborers are few! We’ve got so many organic figs we don’t know what to do them all.  If you live close, you can pick some up! They’ll be coming in the whole month of September. You can freeze or can them for making Figgy pudding. Once you pick them, you’ve got to use them. They don’t have a long shelf life, like a couple of days.

We’ve also got pears a plenty. The branches are heavy but they aren’t completely ripe  yet. Another week, and if you live close you can come by and get some for making pear butter. One day I looked out my kitchen window and saw a squirrel, a rabbit and a groundhog all enjoying the pear tree at the same time.  Even with the wild eating them every day there’s still PLENTY. I wish they would have stayed still long enough for me to get my camera to show you!

More and more Milk Thistles continue to grow and are ready to be harvested–I just can’t get to them all!

My tomatoes didn’t do well- not hot enough this year and a LOT of rainy days. I’ve had plenty of green tomatoes.

Mostly green tomatoes all summer

Mostly green tomatoes all summer

Wash the tomatoes, slice, dip in beaten egg drench in flour both sides-sprinkle your favorite seasonings and salt on while frying

Wash the tomatoes, slice, dip in beaten egg drench in flour both sides-sprinkle your favorite seasonings and salt on while frying

I used gluten free flour you can use your favorite baking flour

I used gluten free flour you can use your favorite baking flour

 

Fry until brown on each side in butter-add more if it gets dry on the pan

Fry until brown on each side in butter-add more if it gets dry on the pan

 

I fried them on high and kinda forgot about them for a few min's-they were still delicious! Make a yummy sauce or dressing  to go on top. I use different dressings all the time. This time I made a topping out of curds, fresh herbs and pickled garlic. Served on top of organic greens and veg's

I fried them on high and kinda forgot about them for a few min’s-they were still delicious! Make a yummy sauce or dressing to go on top. I use different dressings all the time. This time I made a topping out of curds, fresh herbs and pickled garlic. Served on top of organic greens and veg’s

Spaghetti squash green beans below

Spaghetti squash hanging over fence with morning glories

Green beans line the inside of our barn yard

Green beans line the inside of our barn yard. Yep that’s the spaghetti squash you see on the fence. The squash is planted on the other side of the fenced in garden

 

Another wild fruit growing on the farm in the fall-Autumn Olives. They are the size of a currant and the taste- a cross between a currant and a tart cherry. VERY healthy to eat. God grew it them for us, we didn't plant them ourselves.

Another wild fruit growing on our farm in the fall-Autumn Olives. They are the size of a currant and the taste is a cross between a currant and a tart cherry. VERY healthy to eat. God grew them for us, we didn’t plant them. You can eat them raw,  cook them in jams, jellies, pies, sauces or make wine with them.

Growing right next to our Mulberry tree-The Autumn Olive bush

Growing right next to our Mulberry tree-The Autumn Olive bush

Grapes: Typically we get gallons and gallons of grapes from our vines but this year we didn’t get as much as usual. We didn’t take care of them the way we should have either. That makes a huge difference in the harvest. Two things I typically make with our grapes; new wine fermented with whey and yeast bread from the pulp. Here is a video of me preparing pulp to make yeast bread from pulp. 

Natural Yeast Bread

2 cups unwashed organic grapes, processed to pulp- the light powdery coating on the grapes is what is needed to make the yeast. Don’t wash off!!

11  cups ground organic flour (you can use wheat, spelt, rye or any combination-you can even use sprouted grain flours)

1 tablespoon sea salt

filtered water

Starter:

Place 2 cups grape pulp and 2 cups ground flour in clean bowl. Mix well and cover with cheesecloth secured with a large rubber band. Let sit. On day two add 1 cup flour and 1 cup filtered water. Mix well, cover and let sit in warm place. On day three, transfer to clean bowl and add 1 cup flour and 1 cup of filtered water. Cover and let sit in warm place until starter gets frothy and subsides. You should have around 5 cups. Use 4 cups to make bread and save one cup for future bread batches.

Natural Yeast Bread

7 cups flour

4 cups starter

1 tablespoon salt

1 1/2 cup filtered water

Mix well. Cover and let rise in warm place for at least 12 hours. Bake at 300 degrees for about 1 1/2 hours. Oh my goodness, this is delicious. I also use this same recipe for making gluten free yeast bread, I just use gluten free flours.

This is just two of the many loaves I made-the one on the left is gluten free, the one on the right is made from a organic sprouted wheat and spelt grains. The color will vary depending on what kind of flour you use

This is just two of the many loaves I made-the one on the left is gluten free, the one on the right is made from an organic sprouted wheat and spelt grains. The color will vary depending on what kind of flour you use.

Leave a comment below telling me what you wish you had growing on your property.  I’ll draw a winner from the batch next week and send a root, seed or tree from our farm. We’ve got Milk Thistle seeds, Fig root, Autumn Olive root, baby Mulberry tree, Lilac root, Sunflower seeds, Elderberry tree root. . .all organic of course. I’ll have to check and see if we have sprouting pear trees(baby).

Proverbs 28:19 “Those who work their land will have abundant food,
but those who chase fantasies will have their fill of poverty.”

Eating Your Weeds- Milk Thistle for Your Liver

Butterflies enjoying Milk Thistle next to barn

Butterflies enjoying Milk Thistle next to barn

Jonathan is doing well. Would you continue to pray? He needs our prayers. Thank you!! After walking the halls of  the hospital  and seeing all the sick people it makes you want to be healthy, doesn’t it! Hence, this post on Milk Thistle.

Milk Thistle is growing all over our property. For years I thought they were a pain and to some extent they are if you touch the thorns. They’re weeds that literally grow like wild here in VA.  Our cows and sheep wouldn’t eat them, nor our goats! Finally I did some research and found that God was saving them for us. The above ground parts and seeds are medicinal.

The seeds most often are used for liver and gallbladder disorders.

Some people use milk thistle for diabetes, diseases of the spleen, prostate, cancer, depression and, uterus. It is also used for allergy symptoms. They also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

In foods, milk thistle leaves (cooked)and flowers are eaten as a vegetable for salads and a substitute for spinach. The seeds can be used to make coffee substitute and tea.

I’m using my Milk Thistle seeds raw on salads, in our smoothies and in our oatmeal. Having a healthy liver is vital for our health. Here are just a few things the liver does:
*Controls the production and removal of cholesterol
*Makes clotting factors
*Produces immune factors such as gamma gobulin
*Creates bile to help digest food and absorb nutrients
*Helps to clear the body of waste, toxins, and drugs
*Helps to maintain blood pressure
*Helps to support the liver’s ability to regenerate damaged tissue
*Reduces inflammation of the liver and gallbladder
*Improves digestion by stimulating bile production
*Helps to detoxify the liver from poisons
*Provides the body with antioxidants
*Helps to treat cirrhosis of the liver, jaundice, and chronic hepatitis.

Milk Thistle is a super nutrient for liver health. For more info on Milk Thistle read these links:

http://www.globalhealingcenter.com/natural-health/benefits-of-milk-thistle-seed/

http://naturallivingsocal.blogspot.com/2012/04/milk-thistle-seed-liver-regenerator.html

http://www.webmd.com/heart-disease/milk-thistle-benefits-and-side-effects

“Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own? For you have been bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body.” I Cor. 6:19-20

Chop the tops off the milk thistle plant-wear gloves

Chop the tops off the milk thistle plant-wear gloves

milk thistle 6

Let the tops dry for a week in a dry place

Pull the purple top out and you'll find this fluffy stuff with seeds on the ends

Pull the purple top out and you’ll find this fluffy stuff with seeds on the ends

I held the fluffy part and with one gentle tug the seeds came off easy. If you do a bunch you can shake the heads in a big bag and the seeds will drop to the bottom of the bag.

I held the fluffy part and with one gentle tug the seeds came off easy. If you do a bunch you can shake the heads in a big bag and the seeds will drop to the bottom of the bag.

We eat the seeds on our salad, in our smoothies and in our oatmeal

We eat the seeds on our salad, in our smoothies and in our oatmeal

 

milk thistle4

milk thistle 3

Elderberry Elixir- Flu and Virus Remedy

Elderberry Elixer

Elderberry elixir

Elderberry is prolific on the Glasgow Farm. Our honey bees were in bee heaven early this summer with all the  Elderberry blossoms. Elderberry is famous for it’s ability to treat flu and virus symptoms.  This was my first year to make my very own Elderberry elixir. For years I had read how Elderberry  trumps Tamilfu for flu and virus remedy ability, so I decided to make a batch! It is so like God to put the very remedies we need in close proximity to us.

1 Corinthians 6:19-20
“Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit who is in you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own? For you have been bought with a price: therefore glorify God in your body.”

Elderberry Elixir Recipe
Two pint canning jar (or other glass jar that seals well)
Two cups washed ripe elderberries (it took an hour to pick the ripe one’s from the unripe!)
Two cups of high quality brandy
One cup of raw honey
Pour all ingredients into mixing bowl together and stir well. Pour into sterilized pint-sized jars. Secure top on and shake carefully. Let sit in cool dark place for four to six weeks. Strain well, reserving liquid and store in airtight jar in cool, dark place. You don’t have to strain if you don’t want. Shake  before using. Store in small tincture bottles if you have any. The elderberry tincture (elixir) will last a year or more. This is the first year I have made it! The remedy goes back to Hippocrates.

Take a teaspoon every three hours at onset of flu or virus. You can put a teaspoon into a cup of water and drink as well.  Take until well! If you’ve come into contact with someone with the flu or virus I suggest to take 3 or 4 times a day.
Of course- rest and eat chicken soup along with your Elderberry elixir!

“Elderberries have been a folk remedy for centuries. Elderberry is used for its antioxidant activity, to lower cholesterol, to improve vision, to boost the immune system, to improve heart health and for coughs, colds, flu, bacterial and viral infections and tonsilitis. Bioflavonoids and other proteins in the juice destroy the ability of cold and flu viruses to infect a cell. People with the flu who took elderberry juice reported less severe symptoms and felt better much faster than those who did not. Elderberry juice was used to treat a flu epidemic in Panama in 1951.”

Make sure you don’t eat unripe elderberries, the stem or leaves. They can make you very sick.

A Elderberry bunch- the unripe ones and the stems are dangerous to eat. Only use the ripe berries, the black ones

An Elderberry bunch- the unripe ones and the stems are dangerous to eat. Only use the ripe berries, the black ones

Unripe elderberries, in addition to the plant’s leaves, twigs, stems and roots, contain traces of cyanide- So be careful!

Elderberry Elixier ingredients: Raw honey, good quality brandy and Elderberries

Elderberry elixir ingredients: Raw honey, good quality brandy and ripe Elderberries

Pour all ingredients into mixing bowl

Pour all ingredients into mixing bowl

 

Stir elderberries, brandy and honey

Stir elderberries, brandy and honey together

Pour into pint sized jars-this recipe fit into 2 pint jars

Pour into clean pint-sized jars-this recipe fit into 2 pint jars

 

Elderberry Elixier

Elderberry elixir

 

Elderberry_hay_baler_field_DG_Hartwood_VA_8813 (17)

Elderberry elixir Secure top on and let sit for 4-6 weeks. You can strain out the berries at that point or let them stay and get stronger.

Elderberry_Hartwood_VA_DG_8313 (2)

 

You can order  Elderberry bushes from  Gurneys.com.

 

Elderberry tree/bush grew up  through our baler

Elderberry tree/bush grew up through our Baler they would take over our field if we let them!

 

Elderberry bush hanging over bunny

Elderberry bush hanging over bunny

Mulberry Harvesting-10 Ideas of What to do With Mulberries

 

We have five Mulberry trees on the farm.

We have five Mulberry trees on the farm.

Who doesn’t love-making memories or recounting old ones? This past weekend 200 people came to our farm to enjoy family and friends. Dale and I had harvested mulberries the day they got here. Buckets and buckets  were waiting to be processed in my kitchen. My first thought was, I need to get this cleared out of here before all our company comes. But then they arrived before I could get to them and the mulberries became the focus of the night.

 

Many older people who strolled through the kitchen  mentioned the memories of seeing piles of harvest in their grandparents kitchens when they were growing up. They would bring the younger people aside and tell tales of their families mulberry picking and how incredulous it was! Even people who had no memories of mulberries were mesmerized by the mountains of produce in our kitchen. It must be something innate in mankind to feel the pleasure of a bountiful harvest.  I processed the mulberries that night and many who came through said they would never forget the wonderful memory made in our kitchen.

Mulberries are rather mild in flavor, but chock full of nutrients. God planted our Mulberry trees Himself, He knew we would need them. I’ve put up three bushels so far and we’ve only harvested for 2 days! That’s almost 30 gallons! Thank You Lord, You are our Provider!

Ideas for Mulberries:

1. Make a mulberry pie. Find your favorite blackberry pie recipe and substitute mulberries for the blackberries. Just remember–they’re not as sweet.

2. Make a mulberry cobbler. 1 cup of baking flour (I use Pamela’s baking mix it’s gluten free. You can use self rising flour), 1 cup organic sugar, 3/4 cup milk (I use raw), 2 teaspoons vanilla and 1 stick of butter. Melt butter in bottom of baking dish. Mix flour, sugar, milk and vanilla together then spread on top of melted butter. Mix 2 cups of mulberries in 1/3 cup of sugar- heat to melt sugar.  Pour on top of flour mixture in baking dish. Bake for 35-40 minutes in 375 oven–or until done (won’t wiggle when you shake it). Serve with homemade ice cream! Eat on front porch with family and friends. This is truly delicious!

Mulberry Cobbler

Mulberry Cobbler- I ran out of organic sugar so I used 1/2 organic brown sugar in this cobbler- hence the darker color

3. Make mulberry pancakes. Use my pancake recipe, add mulberries to the mix and top with whipped cream and berries on top.

4. Make mulberry smoothie. 1 cup of yogurt, 1/3 cup crushed or juiced mulberries, 1 tablespoon coconut oil, 1 tsps. raw honey and 1/2 tsps. organic vanilla- you can add nuts or flax seeds if you eat with a spoon.

5. Make oatmeal with mulberries. After my oatmeal is ready I add butter, honey, raw milk and a handful of frozen mulberries to the top. YUM!

6. Make mulberry granola.  4 cups walnuts, ½  teaspoon celtic sea salt, ½ cup water, 4  dates pitted and chopped, 5 dried apricots  chopped, ½ cup dried mulberries, 1 teaspoon cinnamon

7. Make your favorite salad and pour fresh or dehydrated mulberries on top.

Dehydrating mulberries in dehydrator

Dehydrating mulberries in dehydrator

8. Make homemade mulberry ice cream. I use 4 cups of raw milk, 1 cup organic sugar, 5 organic and free range egg yolks and 2 tsps. vanilla. Mix all and let sit in fridge for an hour or so. Pour into ice cream maker–use your directions for how long to process. Mine takes 25 minutes. In the last five minutes I add 1/2 cup of crushed mulberries. When I serve the ice cream I add more berries to top!

9. Eat by themselves!

10. Make mulberry muffins. Use your favorite recipe and substitute mulberries for any fruit called for in recipe.

Make sure you don’t use the unripe ones, unless of course you’re in need of a laxative! After you harvest mulberries they deteriorate quickly. They’ll stay good for a couple of days, they keep longer in the fridge.

“Mulberries are very high in antioxidants, which help the body cleanse damaged cells which lead to many complications. They also contain large amounts of vitamin C as well as Vitamin K, Vitamin A, Vitamin E, really high levels of Iron, and Dietary Fiber which all help to give the body and mind incredible energy to live happy and healthy lives! They are also high in minerals like potassium, manganese, and magnesium and contain the B vitamins, B6, Niacin, Riboflavin, and Folic Acid.

Mulberries contain flavinoids and phyto-nutrients and are extremely high in anthocyanins which help to fight against cancer as well as reduce aging and neurological diseases, inflammation, diabetes, and bacterial infections. The berries also contain resveratrol, a powerful blood flow increasing antioxidant which you have probably heard promoted through the wine industry as their new claim to fame. Resveratrol is a powerful healer for many conditions such as aging diseases, inflammation, and a number one go to as part of an herbal protocol for the treatment of lymes disease.” Nutrition facts from www.ReturntoNature.us.

The Mulberry tree is directly behind everyone

The Mulberry tree is directly behind everyone

Dale harvested 30 gallons of mulberries  in two days! 4 hours of labor. There's a ton left to harvest!

Dale harvested 30 gallons of mulberries in two days! 4 hours of labor. There’s a ton left to harvest! He puts a sheet on the ground below the branches and then shakes the branches. The ripe ones gently fall onto the sheet. Easier than picking blackberries amongst thorns and poison ivy!

Mulberries make a great all natural dye for clothes!

Mulberries make a great all natural dye for clothes and fingernails!

Mulberry smoothie! Homemade plain yogurt, raw honey, mulberries and a little  organic vanilla-YUM!

Mulberry smoothie! Homemade plain yogurt, raw honey, mulberries and a little organic vanilla-YUM! We eat them on our salads too! Dehydrate, freeze or can the berries for preservation!

Making memories

And He said to them, “The harvest is plentiful, but the laborers are few. Therefore pray earnestly to the Lord of the harvest to send out laborers into His harvest. Luke 10:2

Every time we have a bountiful harvest, I think of that verse and it convicts me to bring in God’s harvest!  People are ripe for hearing the Good News of Jesus, we just need to do it!

 

Storage of Winter Vegetables

Storing Vegetables in my Root Cellar

I love the fact that vegetables can keep the entire winter in a root cellar. That is, if they are taken care of properly. Now, just to let you know, I didn’t grow all of these vegetables. We have grown all of them at one time or another on our farm. Our problem the last two years has been our stinking ground hogs.

They love to eat the garden.  They especially love things with blossoms, like pumpkins.

Sparky and  the garden eater, a ground hog

Pumpkins, guards, spaghetti, and butternut squash are the winners in keeping a winter storage.  Our cellar stays nearly 50 degrees- from fall until early spring. The pumpkins and butternut squash have potential to be as perfect as when picked, if the temperature stays 50 and under. The secret is, don’t let them touch each other! They need air circulation.

Carrots store well in sawdust (non-chemical of course). Dale has enough sawdust from all of his wood working to keep me stocked.  I pulled the carrots out of the sawdust so you can see them.

Sweet potatoes do fairly well in our cellar. If picked in September, they’ll store well until February. Most all the vegetables must not be washed before they are stored. They are cured after being pulled from the garden for a few days. Cured is another word for drying them out. You don’t want any moisture on them when stored or they’ll rot.

I go through onions pretty fast. I wouldn’t know from experience how long they last. Most people braid and hang them.

I also dry beans from green beans. Ours seem to grow even when I don’t water them. They grow supernaturally, you pick them, and within just a few days the plants are loaded again!  So, to get white beans- let your last crop mature on the vine.  Don’t pick.  After they’re mature pull the plant up and hang upside down on the fence.  Let dry for a couple of weeks (they can’t be in rain so you may want to bring into barn to hang).  After completely dry, bang the plant inside a can or barrel and the beans will easily fall out of the shell. Or you can open them by hand.  They must be dry and have no moisture before you store them.  Store in a cool, dry area.  Unopened they store for 30+ years.  Opened, they last a couple of years. Oh, yes and ground hogs and rabbits don’t eat our beans.  :)

Kale (photo below) planted in the fall will grow until January, here in Virginia.  This year, mine is still growing and it’s February- even though our night time temperatures have been in the teens. Kale is a great winter vegetable. Even if it hibernates January through February, it awakens the first of March with tons of nutrients for your family to eat.

My thyme and rosemary are still going strong on my porch. The porch is not heated, but it is enclosed. The temperatures go below 32– but the plants are still doing well. I water them once a week and they have sun exposure.

I made Smoked Saffron Chicken and White Beans/Portugal Style  gluten-free with some of the beans and herbs. It was delicious!

Storage of winter vegetables do well in the corner of a garage on shelves. Just put covering over them for insulation. Or, if you want to be adventurous  dig yourself a hole in the ground, put the vegetables inside and cover with hay or other insulated materials.

Help yourself to fresh vegetables all winter long!

In the house of the wise are stores of choice food and oil, but a foolish man devours all he has. Proverbs 21:20

Pumpkin, butternut squash, kale(fresh out of garden), herbs(from porch) eggs(from our coop), pumpkin seeds , curds and northern beans (white beans)– They’re all on the menu for this week!

 

Canning Pear Butter-Video

Sharon’s Pear Butter( I double the recipe)

We have an abundance of pears on our property. We just found another tree drooping with pears a couple of weeks ago in our field. Some people are allergic to apples so pears are a great way to enjoy the same recipes with a fruit similar. I would recommend using apple cider in this recipe if your family members can have apples. I posted how to make your own pear cider in a previous post; http://sharonglasgow.com/2012/10/the-weekend-harvest-bushels-of-pears-pear-cider/

10 cups chopped pears (approximately 5lbs)

2 cups pear cider (you can use apple)

3 cups sugar (you can make it without sugar)

1 tsp ground gloves

1/2 tsp allspice

3 tsp ground cinnamon

1. Wash, peel,core and quarter pears. You don’t have to peel the pears if they’re blemish free.

2.Cook pears in cider and sugar until done, 20 min’s on high.

3. Pour pears in small quantity into blender and puree.

4. After all pears are pureed put spices in and stir

5. Pour into a pan and cook in oven on 350 degrees for at least 7 hours. It becomes thick and rich the longer it cooks.

Don’t use iron pans, it turns the pear butter a dark color and takes on the taste of iron. I learned this the hard way. Glass, stainless steel or ceramic are good choices. Test for desired thickness by spooning a drop of pear butter on cold plate. If no liquid oozes around edges, it is ready.

6. Ladle into sterile jars, leaving 1/4 inch head space.

7. Process in boiling water canner for 10 minutes.

Yeilds 5 pints

 

 

The Weekend Harvest–Bushels of Pears/ Pear Cider

Harvesting our pears

This past weekend Dale installed a 30 ft mural that he created for the county. I’ll show you what it looks like after the unveiling this afternoon, exciting.

Saturday pears were dropping from our pear tree faster than fast, that meant harvest time. I picked as many as I had room to store. I’m going to make pear butter (the best ever) with them, but I’m waiting for Rachael to come home and video the process so you can be with us.

I use cider in my pear butter so I started a couple of batches.

After pear harvesting I mowed the yard for a few hours, planted pansies on the front path to the house, then made dinner and dessert to bring Dale and his crew at the county installation. I stayed with them until midnight so I could help hang the 30 foot header on top of the mural.

Sunday Dale had a few loose ends to finish on the installation, then came home and we enjoyed a pot roast, potatoes and vegetables. We then enjoyed a long walk around the property and found at least 50 persimmon trees growing in the back field. This is the first year we’ve noticed them having fruit. They were delicious! Yum!

We’ll be a persimmon orchard in a couple of years. We found another pear tree that’s limbs were drooping with fruit. God has been good to give us so many delicacies.

We then sat down next to the barn and pondered all the things God has laid on our heart for the future, it was a sweet time.

 

This was the pear tree a week before. You can see the ones picked are more yellow and ready for use immediately.

Harvested pears

I stored as many as I could in our old refrigerator and in the house . These will be used for the pear butter.

 

This is our antique apple press for making cider. I love it! However,I didn’t have time to clean it, I opted for the electric juicer in my kitchen.

I washed the pears, took out bad places, chopped them and then sent them through the juicer

Chopped pears

Pear cider in waiting. Buying cider at the store would be easier, but when you have an abundance of fruit you gotta make it yourself. I added homemade whey to this for fermentation and to add good bacteria.

Pulp from the pear juice

Chickens and rooster enjoying the pulp

 

Edward, our buck eating the pear scraps

After harvesting pears and mowing for a couple of hours I planted pansies. These will be triple in size next spring, just in time for the big wedding.

One of our many persimmon trees

 

Walking, talking and dreaming of all the Lord has laid on our hearts

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Vintage Kitchen – Canning Butter

1.   You must use salted butter.  11 lbs will fill 12 pint jars. 

2.   Preheat oven to 275 degrees.  Place cleaned pint size jars in oven for 20 minutes, without rings or seals.  One pound of butter more than fills one pint jar.

3.    While jars are in oven, melt butter in a pot slowly until it comes to a slow boil.  Stir well, being sure to get bottom of the pot often to keep the butter from scorching. Reduce heat, and simmer for at least 5 minutes.  Place the lids in a small pot and bring to a boil, leaving the lids in simmering water until needed.

4.   With sterilized spoon, take white foam off top of clarified butter. Pour melted clarified butter carefully into sterilized jars through a canning jar funnel.  Leave ½ to ¾ ” of head space in the jar, which allows room for the shaking process.

5.   Carefully wipe off the top of the jars.  Then get a hot lid from the simmering water, add the lid and ring, and secure each gently.

6.   Fill canning pot 1/3 full for pint size jars. Turn burner on. Put butter jars into canning pot and secure it shut. Turn the heat to high. After the air vent button pops up and steam starts rolling out loudly, I start timing. Since the jars were sterilized and the butter boiled I only canned for 20 min. If I had not boiled the butter in advance it would take 60 minutes in the canner.

7.   Turn heat off under canning pot. Let cool. It may take a while. Do not ever try to open a canning pot lid until the air vent button has gone down.  After the button goes down, it should be safe to slowly open the lid.  SLOWLY. As soon as it opens, you will start to hear pings. This means they are sealing.

8.   Once in a while you’ll have a jar not seal. You check the seal by pressing the center, it should not give at all. If one gives, use that one for this week’s butter.

9.   While cooling, shake once an hour until it looks uniform. You can put it in the refrigerator to make this process go faster.

10.   I store my butter in a cool place in our cellar.

Let me make it perfectly clear that canning butter has not been proven to be safe by the USDA. You should research canning butter before beginning this adventure.

 After item has been in storage for a while check these things:

1.   Is it still sealed?

2.   Does it have mold on it inside or out?

3.   Does it look odd in any way?

4.   Does it have an off odor

5.   If it is not sealed or any of the above occur, throw it away

If all looks perfect, but you still want assurance, boil your canned butter for 30 min’s.

People have been canning for many years.  It wasn’t until this past century that people started to lose their heritage of preserving food.

People have been canning successfully since the 1800′s.

For safety’s sake, please read what the USDA has to say on the subject of canning butter at home. Much of this is because they haven’t run tests on these processes themselves and therefore cannot vouch for their safety. Please read HERE and decide for yourself before proceeding to can butter at home.

Sharon’s Canned Butter

Use sterilzed jars, make sure they aren’t chipped on the rim

 

The Home of Our Happy Chickens: Our Portable Chicken Coop

Video by Rachael Glasgow

For years we enjoyed watching our chickens roam the property. It was great fun to see them running  around and hearing the rooster cock-a-doodle-doo  all over the farm. But, we had one major problem, at dusk chickens would get snatched by fox waiting for them in the fields, the only thing we would find of their remains–feathers. Dale decided to build a portable chicken coop, one that they could have fresh grass and bugs but be protected from fox.

I always bring Sparky with me when we get our eggs because there are times when we have had snakes in the chicken coop. Sparky will get the snakes for me. This is a portable chicken coop, dale built it so that the fox can’t get to the chickens,  they are totally enclosed inside. Everyday we move the chicken coop with our lawn tractor around the yard; so everyday they get fresh grass and bugs. It doesn’t kill your grass because you are moving it all the time, and you get more eggs because they are getting all the nutrients they need.

Alright it looks like a lot of eggs. There are 13 eggs for today. Alright, they have their water, they have their feed in there. Then we lock it back up. The portable chicken coop is carried by a pulley that attaches to our tractor. Do you want to see what it looks like inside? Let me show you how dale built this. Alright we’ll make sure there are no snakes. Sparky is ready. We put the grain feed on the door. We’re almost out of grain here. This is the grain; we put it in this container. We change the water in the morning and at night. We’re all done!

 

 

Milking a Goat and Benefits of Unpasteurized Milk

Today, I’d like for you to join me as we milk our goats! Watch this video, and you’ll be able to learn how to milk a goat yourself.  One of the stories that I read that really made me want to try milking goats and having raw milk, was the story that happened in the 1300’s. The Bubonic plague came and hit Europe and killed 25 million people, within 3 years of time. The only people that weren’t dying were the Jews. The people thought that the Jews were killing them, but really what was happening was that they were eating “Biblically correct”.  Their immune systems were strong, and their bodies were able to kill the bad bacteria with the good bacteria from the unpasteurized milk.  They were able to kill viruses and pathogens that came into their bodies.  It’s an amazing super-food that God created for us to be able to have for our health.

Now that you’re convinced that you want a milking goat, here are the supplies that we need in order to milk her…

- We need a jar to put the milk in.
- We need a sterilized cloth to make sure that nothing falls into the milk while we’re milking her.
- And we need a cloth to wash her well.

The first thing that we’re going to do is wash her udders.  After you’ve done that, you lay the cloth over the jar and start milking. The first couple squirts go onto the paper towel, just in case there’s bacteria in there.  Put both hands at the base of her utter, push up and squeeze, and then all the milk comes down. So you go up, and squeeze down!  You want to make sure that you get it all out because you don’t want her to get any infections.

The next thing that you do is spray with Fight-Bac. This is a disinfectant, and it also helps to control mastitis. You never want your goat to have that.  Now we’re going to let her out…Good job, Angel!

The first thing we’re going to do is wash our hands.  The next thing we’re going to do is take the cloth off and rinse it out.  Rinse it really well and get all the milk and anything that fell on it off.  Then we have a filter.  I got mine from Hoager’s, a goat supplies store (online).  I put the filter on the bottom of the funnel. Then we’re going to put it through the second filtration process.  Make sure that we filter out anything that could have fallen into the milk. Sometimes you don’t have any dirt, and nothing comes through the first cloth that we put on.  But, you never want take that chance — you always want to have a second filter.

This is from one milking!  We get a little over a gallon a day.  This is from the night time milking, and we get the same amount in the morning.  Then, I take the funnel and filter off, I rinse it, and later I’ll be sterilizing it.  Now we’re going to put a top on and seal it up.  We have Saturday written on the top.   We put it on, and now we’re finished.  We’re going to put it in the refrigerator where it will last for 4 to 5 days.  And now we’re finished.  You know how to milk a goat.  And you know how to process it.